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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

不包括阿拉斯加和夏威夷在内的美国本土曾在2012年创下温度记录,那年发生过灼人的热浪和干旱。主要是由于东部地区不同寻常地寒冷,才使得2014年的温度对这48个州来说,仅在有记录以来的最暖年度中排名第34。

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8.鲜花往往不属于赏花人,而属于牛粪。
A strong performance in all four rankings for LBS includes first place for its full-time MBA programme and third for both its joint Executive MBA programme (taught with Columbia Business School in the US) and customised executive education.
为编制英国《金融时报》2017年金融硕士课程排行榜而收集的数据显示,在金融领域工作的毕业生当中,性别多样化程度日益上升。

Regardless of whether or not you think Snapchat is worth the $3 billion Facebook offered it, one thing is clear: There's an appetite out there for so-called ephemeral networks, where content literally vanishes seconds after being received. And, contrary to popular perception, this isn't just about sexting and X-rated selfies (though it definitely is about that, too). As content on the major networks becomes more corporate and commoditized, Snapchat and services like it restore some of the fun and spontaneity to social media. Just like a real-life interaction -- where ideas flow freely and you generally don't worry about everything being recorded for posterity and broadcast to the world -- SnapChat and networks like it offer a channel for genuine, unfiltered exchange. And the kids really like it. While Facebook's own CFO officially acknowledged last month that teen use of his network is declining, the number of teens on SnapChat -- at least anecdotally -- is exploding.
在2013年的这次调查中,东京重新获得“全球最贵城市”的头衔。瑞士苏黎士由于汇率波动在去年名列榜首,但今年由于政府采取了控制汇率措施,在榜单上下滑至第七。日本大阪成为全球第二贵的城市。
It set minimum prices too high for commodities including cotton, sugar and corn, and as those prices diverged from the market prices, authorities encouraged excessive production as well as strong import flows.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

交出2015年成绩单 木门从业者还有哪些期盼?

前“世界小姐”朴雅卡·乔普拉位列2015世界美女榜第九。她是一名印度演员兼歌手,是宝莱坞片酬最高的女演员之一,也是印度最受欢迎、知名度最高的名人之一。她获得过无数荣誉,包括印度国家电影奖的最佳女演员奖项,以及印度电影观众奖的四项大奖。
The Thomson Reuters Top 100 global innovators program identifies innovators annually through an in-depth analysis based on a series of patent-related metrics that analyze what it means to be truly innovative.
About 9.8 percent of the graduates are opting for "slow employment", meaning they will spend some time traveling, staying with their parents or waiting for opportunities to start up a business before figuring out their future plans, according to the survey.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Coca-Cola cut its sales forecast for this year as it struggles with a consumer slowdown in China, sending the drinks group’s shares down more than 3 per cent.
“白”之禁忌
So the messaging apps have gotten creative. Tango, for example, inserts ads within a user’s messaging “inbox.” WeChat, a popular Chinese app that is owned by Tencent, makes money through games, stickers (which are similar to emojis), and mobile commerce. Kik offers a feature that some are calling “chatvertising,” where users hold conversations with chat-bots powered by brands like Funny or Die and Moviefone.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • adj. 易坏的,脆弱的,浅薄的 n. 复写纸,薄纸副本
  • 西安七部门联手治理房地产市场乱象 已对15家房企暂停网签
  • 其中还出现了一些长期霸榜的易泄露密码,出于某些原因,网友们一直热衷于使用这些密码。
  • 炒楼不如投资墓地?墓地投资孕育新热潮
  • 63.8%受访者期待简化公积金提取手续与资料审查
  • MINNEAPOLIS
    另有其他四部国产电影挤入榜单前十位,排名第三的是《羞羞的铁拳》,第四名为《功夫瑜伽》,第五名为《西游伏妖篇》,第八名为《芳华》。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 多地遇土地证续期问题 专家:是否影响业主居住, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

三方面浅析:亚洲家居生产及市场现状

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

决定房价中长期表现的关键:人口质量

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The announcement comes from the British Fashion Council (BFC), who surveyed designers ahead of the shows and found none of the 80 designers in the September line-up would be using fur.
    然而,相关数据似乎表明,中国企业投资西方经济体的步伐可能在放缓。
  • 大宗农产品投机交易一直是今年市场波动的一个特点,荷兰合作银行预测,这种趋势将继续。
    “还有大批人没有统计进来,”胡润对英国《金融时报》表示,“两周前我在北京拜访了这家投资公司。一下午的时间,我就发掘出了30个登上今年富豪榜的人。他们去年还不在我们的视线内。”
    China’s trade with the rest of the world fell sharply in October from a year earlier, with imports of raw materials particularly hard hit as slowing Chinese investment feeds through into weaker demand in the world’s biggest trader of goods.
    adj. 有资格的,有限制的
    [in'spekn]

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 2015中国建材500强企业榜单揭晓
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 温州炒房太太团已经出没 开始悄然四处下单

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Call it the crisis of whiteness.
n. 硅
We think of the passage of NBA time in seasons, for obvious reasons. There's connection, a continuum. It's how we remember things that happen, in the course of a season of play. But there's some benefit to looking back at a calendar year, January 1 to December 31, and what we've learned in that process. After all, many say the "unofficial start" to the NBA season is Christmas, with the new year starting soon after. So here are the lessons we learned about the NBA in the year 2017.
当晚的最大赢家可能还要属主持人蒂娜?费和埃米?珀勒,这是两人第二次搭档主持金球奖颁奖典礼,且她们今年表现丝毫不逊去年,创下了1,970万观众的六年来最高收视率。金球奖颁奖典礼由好莱坞外国记者协会(Hollywood Foreign Press Association)举办,举办地点位于加利福尼亚州贝弗利山庄的贝弗利山希尔顿酒店(Beverly Hills Hilton)。
recept接受+ive表形容词→善于接受的
英国和法国成为欧洲商学院教育的两大来源。在上榜商学院中,近一半要么来自英国(20所),要么来自法国(19所)。从排名、毕业生薪资(法国为5.5万美元,英国为4.9万美元)以及学生数量(法国为9000人,英国为1200人)看,法国在管理硕士课程方面强于英国。然而,从MBA商学院数量(英国上榜商学院为18所,法国为5所)和学生数量(英国为1900人,法国为1300人)来看,英国商学院MBA课程强于法国,尽管在毕业生薪资方面,英国MBA课程(11.5万美元)不敌法国(13.7万美元)。
Trium jumped three places to overtake the joint programme taught by Kellogg School of Management near Chicago and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, which had been top of the ranking for five years. It is the first time Trium has headed the ranking and it is only the fourth programme to do so in 14 years.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • A Chinese Poet’s Unusual Path From Isolated Farm Life to Celebrity
  • 38所高校毕业生买房给补贴 留人还要留心
  • Ninety percent of the students believe their universities' guidance on entrepreneurship would help their future businesses. In addition, they professed appreciation for policies intended to encourage entrepreneurship.
    Among 36,000 who have reached celebrity status on the Internet, 74 percent are women and 87.8 percent are between 17 to 33 years old, while 89 percent have a college education. Followers are also getting younger and better educated, with 77.8 percent in the 17-to-33 age group and 75 percent with a higher education.
  • 直击丹东楼市:不仅中国人买,韩国人也来看房
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 马修?麦康纳(Matthew McConaughey)和贾里德?莱托(Jared Leto) 均凭在剧情片《达拉斯买家俱乐部》(Dallas Buyers Club)中的真实演绎荣获金球奖,该片讲述了一群德克萨斯人向艾滋病病毒发起勇敢抗争的故事。获九次金球奖提名的莱昂纳多?迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCaprio)因在《华尔街之狼》(The Wolf of Wall Street)的出色表现第二次摘得最佳男演员桂冠。他在发表获奖感言时感谢了影片导演马丁?斯科塞斯(Martin Scorsese)对他的指导(该片是两人第五次合作),并感谢他“允许自己跟着他拍下了这部电影”。
    5.Paperpot Transplanter
  • BAD SPORTSMANSHIP
    Meanwhile producer prices fell 4.9 per cent year-on-year in February, as expected, compared to a 5.3 per cent fall in January. The drop was the smallest in eight months.
  • 人社部下属的社会保障研究所的所长金维刚称,鉴于居民消费价格指数低于预期、工资和GDP涨幅也有所放缓,所以今年上调5.5%这一数字是合理的。
    The worries stretched from the global, such as Russian attempts to influence the US presidential election in 2016, to the local — concerns about users’ mental health and the drain on productivity as they drown in notifications and news feed posts.
  • 8. It’s never too late to start.
    的确,所有的托管公司都提供了一个基本的CMS系统(内容管理系统),但它们是否具有足够的灵活性,确保你的顾客能在网络上找到你?大概不能。WordPress是一个开源的CMS系统,你还可以选择定制或持续优化。你可能需要某个有开发经验的人帮你安装,但一旦安装完毕,你八成不需要任何帮助就能自己发布内容了。
    40万美元对于他们来说可谓九牛一毛——2015年,希拉里和她的丈夫比尔?克林顿主要通过演讲和版税收入赚得了1060万美元,特朗普也声称自己赚得将近5600万美元。
  • 8.Russia
    In the big closing session of the World Economic Forum in Davos, they recognised risks existed and badly run emerging markets might be vulnerable to shocks, but concluded that the outlook was brighter than it has been for many years.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 广州新引进重点企业决策层 每人每年最高奖励200万元 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

小猪短租再次携手网易考拉 升级城市睡眠空间

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

长沙等12城被确定为2018年棚改拟激励支持城市

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

上半年水口镇水暖卫浴产业产值58.9亿

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

(受权发布)中共中央 国务院 印发《乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)》(14)

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 补救办法:这也是一个后知后觉的遗憾,没有时间机器是无法解决的。你在学业上花费的时间、精力和金钱是既定成本。你无法改变以前的学业情况,但可以找出自己在大学期间没有学好的课程,然后想办法从现在开始弥补。例如,如果你觉得自己在课堂外的社交有所不足,你可以考虑加入校友协会,或者努力地融入到你所在领域的行业协会。如果你后悔错过了早上八点钟的管理会计课程,悲叹这些知识现在对你多么重要,那么你可以看看附近社区大学的这类课程。
  • “目前市场上有大量尖端,环保的人造皮草,我相信你会同意现在没有任何借口来杀死动物以获取皮草了。”
  • 一家资产10亿的智能家居企业之死 给创业者哪些启示?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 上海软科教育信息咨询有限公司于上周三发布的2018年“世界大学学术排名”显示,中国有62所研究型大学入围这份全球500强高校榜单。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 俄克拉荷马城的经理萨姆-普莱斯蒂并不是截止日交易的陌生人,他送走卡梅罗-佩恩,若弗雷-洛维尔涅和一个二轮签从芝加哥换来泰-吉布森和道格-麦克德莫特的交易大获成功。
    委内瑞拉政府一年前关闭了所有边境口岸,以打击长达1378英里(2219公里)边境沿线的走私活动。政府抱怨说,正是因为投机者在委内瑞拉购买了补贴的食品和汽油,并将他们带到哥伦比亚高价出售造成的短缺。
    他告诉《中国日报》:“中国医生每天要看多少病人?可能超过50个。我们怎么可能有时间和精力做研究或发论文呢?”
  • But Moonlight kept pace with it over the course of a marathon four-hour ceremony. Barry Jenkins and Tarell Alvin McCraney won best adapted screenplay, while Mahershala Ali won best supporting actor — the first Oscar for a Muslim American actor.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 四年前,玛蒂还是一个默默无闻的8岁小女孩,她喜欢跳舞,就读于当地一所小学。
  • “双十一”狂欢背后冷思考 家居市场真正的需求是什么?
  • 会,即便真实的GDP增速未超过这个数字。关于中国真正的(相对官方数据而言)GDP增长率的猜测,已经衍生出一个由相关经济学专家组成的作坊式行业。官方数据看似稳定而美好——有人怀疑中国有关部门对数据进行了“美化”,调整了一些数字、使其符合增长目标。因此,即使2018年中国的增长磕磕绊绊,官方的增速也几乎肯定会高于预定的6.5%。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 2018年国企和金融改革有望关键突破
  • Household substance abuse
  • 高扬集团非法集资超6亿遭调查 月星家居或涉其中
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

热点城市房价短期内大幅上涨 高杠杆风险需警惕

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 统计局:上半年云南住宅价格持续上涨 昆明上涨11.1%
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 宽松政策推动刚需入市 一二线楼市望加速回暖
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

7. 由于政治争斗的存在,2014年-2016年的选举过程中注定会有频繁的波动

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

泰国董里岛——董里岛是泰国东南部一个可被雷达侦测到的沉睡之省,游人可以在那里租长尾船,到岛屿之间穿行,还可以去看濒临灭绝的儒艮。
Total Program Cost: $181,500 in either Philadelphia or San Francisco
Most popular vehicle
“能被评为全球最国际化的大学之一,这个名单中的所有学校都是值得祝贺的。这标志着它们拥有巨大的潜力、竞争力和发展动力。”
n. 失业,失业人数
Yet disparities were clear among sectors and companies.
由于经济增长温和、社会快速老龄化,今年的涨幅较2016年的6.5%有所下降。
According to Oliver Cooke, a financial-services recruiter at Selby Jennings in New York, banks have been stressing what they call “internal mobility”, or redeploying staff from one department to another. If a bank facing sluggish conditions in debt trading, for example, can convert a trader to a risk analyst or a compliance officer, it can keep people interested — and it can save a bundle on severance.
超级大坏蛋们将受命保护人类——这就是《自杀小队》的主旨。 一个名叫“A.R.G.U.S”的政府机构招募了一些罪犯帮它执行危险任务,罪犯们将得到的报酬是减刑。这支特遣小队的成员有小丑、死亡射手、哈利·奎恩、回旋镖队长、杀人鳄以及DC漫画宇宙里的其他坏家伙。
After months have passed without a culprit in her daughter's murder case, Mildred Hayesmakes a bold move, painting three signs leading into her town with a controversial message directed at William Willoughby, the town's revered chief of police. When his second-in-command Officer Dixon, an immature mother's boy with a penchant for violence, gets involved, the battle between Mildred and Ebbing's law enforcement is only exacerbated.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

各大房企期中考成绩出炉:半年销售业绩如何?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Here are the 10 bogies, drones targeting markets, stocks, bonds and the, global economy:
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 在这6所美国学校中,新泽西的罗格斯商学院(Rutgers Business School)是排名最高的新上榜学校,排名第70。亚利桑那州立大学凯瑞商学院(Arizona State University WP Carey School of Business)是排名最高的重新上榜学校,排在第57位。南卡罗来纳大学(University of South Carolina)摩尔商学院(Moore School of Business)重新上榜,排名第77。摩尔商学院令人瞩目地在国际课程体验排名居首,其学员的海外学习时间从几个月到1年。
  • 一核一带一区:广东构建区域发展新格局
  • Song “Chinese Zodiac” (Lee-Hom Wang)
  • 智能家居企业群雄逐鹿 市场这块蛋糕应该怎么吃?
  • A total of 61 IPOs were launched on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges, down 67 percent on the same period last year. About 28.8 billion yuan (4.3 billion U.S.dollars) was raised, down by 80 percent.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 大股东易主 佛山照明未来如何整合运营?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 你翻上去找第十二条,然后默默地笑自己....
  • LONDON — Since its inception in 2002, the Saturday Profile has aimed to bring to readers of The New York Times people around the world they probably have never heard of, but who have led interesting lives and done extraordinary things, or perhaps recently gone through a remarkable experience.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

莱蒙国际133亿出售深圳、杭州等8项目

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